A Markov process is a random process in which the future is independent of the past, given the present. Thus, Markov processes are the natural stochastic analogs of the deterministic processes described by differential and difference equations. They form one of the most important classes of random processes.
The study of Markov chains is a core topic in every textbook on stochastic processes.
When in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes—Shakespeare, Sonnet 29
I all alone beweep my outcast state ...